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“The King’s Speech” garnered four golden statues at this year’s Academy Awards ceremony, including the Oscar for Best Actor for Colin Firth’s riveting portrayal of King George VI. The film’s depiction of George VI’s lifelong struggle with stuttering has brought a renewed awareness to the speech disorder that affects over sixty-eight million people worldwide. What is the origin of this disorder and how did it get its name?

Stutter, or the Greek alalia syllabaris, is onomatopoeic – a word that suggests the sound that it describes – derived from the Middle English stutte or “stop.” The evolution of the word can be found in John Skelton’s 1529 verse: “Her fellow did stammer and stut.”

Stuttering is a communication disorder in which the flow of speech is fractured by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds and syllables. Stuttering is usually associated with verbal repetition; it is also defined as an irregular hesitation before speech – commonly referred to as “blocks.”  The disorder is believed to have its origin in both genetics and brain development. While the mechanisms of stuttering aren’t generally about the physical production of putting thoughts into words, the stress and anxiety experienced by a person may exacerbate the problem. The disorder is variable – in other words, depending on the situation, the stutter may be more or less severe.

Winston Churchill stuttered – as did Marilyn Monroe and James Earl Jones. Jazz musician Scatman John wrote the song “Scatman (Ski Ba Bop Ba Dop Bop)” to help children overcome stuttering.

Do you have questions about any of the other medical aspects of language or speech? Let us know, below.

Bonds’ shaky support threatens Crane biz park

Indianapolis Business Journal August 7, 2006 | Schnitzler, Peter During his first months in office, Gov. Mitch Daniels’ top priority was engineering a stay of execution for the Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center, 90 miles southwest of Indianapolis. Losing its 5,200 employees and contractors would have been a devastating blow to the region.

Daniels’ lobbying effort in Washington, D.C., was so successful that the Association of Defense Communities last month recognized him as “2006 Public Official of the Year.” But troubles with local financing for a new business park on the outskirts of Crane threaten to set back the progress. site crane federal credit union

Leaders in Greene, Daviess and Martin Counties have been attempting to build the West Gate at Crane park so that private companies can leverage the base’s capacity as a high-tech engineering hub. Thanks to bonds underwritten by Daviess County, they’ve already broken ground on a building for the first tenant, Gaithersburg, Md.-based defense contractor EG&G. The project is expected to bring 70 jobs. Last month the Crane Federal Credit Union announced plans to move its headquarters there, too.

But Martin County residents aren’t sure they want to underwrite construction of two more buildings in the park, both slated for lease by San Diego-based Science Applications International Corp. The debate has already run across two public meetings. On Aug. 7, the Martin County Council will meet to consider whether to authorize a $4.5 million bond issue. Some Martin County officials have questioned whether SAIC, an enormous defense contractor, needs assistance from local taxpayers.

“This is a big deal for Martin County to take on a project of this size and magnitude. People are taking their time and being very deliberative about it,” said Martin County Economic Development Director Jerry Ott. “If the bond issue fails, it certainly causes lots of difficulties and problems for the project. We don’t even like to think or talk about that.” If West Gate at Crane can successfully land SAIC, it stands to gain 100 jobs immediately and even more over time, Ott said. If approved, the bonds would be repaid from taxes raised through a local tax-increment financing district and from an economic-development tax Martin County has levied against personal incomes.

SAIC’s jobs are just the kind economically depressed southern Indiana needs, Ott said.

“It’d be huge, particularly with the average wages they’re talking about in the neighborhood of $45,000 per person,” he said.

Mike Gentile, executive director of Southern Indiana Business Alliance Inc., expects the bond issue to pass. Now that the Crane base’s future has been secured, he said, it’s been much easier to attract business interest in the West Gate park.

“I think the focus has changed from saving the base to growing the base, and the tech park is an integral part of that,” Gentile said. “Momentum is building up.” The Daniels administration hasn’t lost sight of the project. It’s seeking a consultant to prepare an economic development plan for the region around Crane. According to a request for proposals from the Indiana Economic Development Corp., Crane’s scientific expertise is ready and available for private-sector companies.

Ultimately, officials hope to diversify the region’s economy beyond Crane and its direct defense contractors. The base’s engineers are trained to assist with university research and development, and technology transfer to private firms.

“The goal of this analysis is to lay the foundation for an economic diversification plan for this region that will result in an orderly transition from economic dependence upon defense spending to a more balanced mix of private and public sector employment,” the RFP read. here crane federal credit union

For southwest Indiana, West Gate’s success is crucial. The Crane base has twice before been slated for closure. One day, the military will reconfigure its assets again. When that time comes, Ott said, landlocked Indiana will need to show Crane’s mission is still vital to the Navy and its contractors.

Increasing Crane’s business ties could improve its odds to remain open. The base’s primary mission is to develop new high-tech weapons systems. Such systems often have their origins in the private sector.

And next time, the governor might not be able to lobby another stay of execution.

“There will be other studies that will happen, and Crane will have to stand that muster again” Ott said. “The tech park won’t be the sole answer for that issue. But it’s one of the many pieces of the puzzle we’re trying to put in place to ensure that Navy base continues to be here.” Reinventing Crane What: Crane Naval Surface Warfare Center Location: 90 miles southwest of Indianapolis Size of Crane base: 98 square miles Total base employment: about 5,200 Primary business services: technology transfer; failure and material analysis, research and development; environmental testing; process engineering; prototyping Annual Indiana economic impact: $1.5 billion Planned on-site business park: West Gate at Crane Announced tenants: EG&G, a defense contractor; Crane Federal Credit Union Source: West Gate at Crane; Crane Technology Inc.

Schnitzler, Peter

55 Comments

  1. Darren Knaus -  January 3, 2012 - 12:15 am

    I’m a stutterer. I wish I’d been born mute.

    People don’t make fun of mutes.

    But people think it’s okay to ridicule people who stutter.

    Reply
  2. Priya -  April 19, 2011 - 6:27 am

    This is some great piece of information! What I liked most was the “scatman” fact… Supercool!

    This is of great help to me as I train in linguistics…

    Reply
  3. Will Bain -  March 26, 2011 - 9:23 pm

    To Rebekah:

    Don’t worry. I used to shutter quite a lot when I was your age, too, but I mostly outgrow it. Now that I’m grown up, I hardly ever shutter, and now it’s mostly only when I’m among friends (oddly enough).

    When you feel under stress about talking to others, just take a deep breath and speak slowly. Not only will you keep your shutter under control, but you’ll been seen as very wise, too. ;-]

    – Will

    Reply
  4. hksche2000 -  March 26, 2011 - 1:00 pm

    Speech and, above all, breathing exercises are basic to any therapy for (predominantly genetic) stutter conditions. That’s why singing reduces stutter not just because the lyrics are rehearsed but also because of superior breathing technics that harmonize speech and breathing.

    Remember Demosthenes (=Peoplepower), the great orator/demagogue of ancient Greece and his proverbial Philippicae. In his youth, D had a feeble voice and a stutter, nary the best preconditions to become an orator. (His)story has it that he would go to the shore, put a pebble on his tongue and practice his speech to overcome his stutter and develop a booming voice to match the noise of the breaking surf.

    Several blogs attest to anxiety, stress, pain et al. adrenaline enhancing mechanisms as a root cause of stuttering. Small Beta-1 blocker doses (e.g. Atenolol) frequently will help combat stage fright. They can preempt or reduce stutter and break the vicious cycle of stress-stutter-more stress-more stutter.
    Serotonin(S)-mediated self confidence, too, may ameliorate a stutter condition and S-reuptke inhibitors may well be worth a try. Not all stutterers are created equal and different methods of treatment may apply to different types of this dysphasia.

    Reply
  5. Flintstone -  March 26, 2011 - 7:21 am

    My friend has a child who has been diagnosed with autism. At 3yrs of age he doesn’t speak yet. (He once said a-e -i -o-u ) Anyone out there got anything positive to say?

    Reply
  6. Terrence Gavan -  March 14, 2011 - 3:36 am

    Stuttering has a huge psychological component. And even when the psychological component is relieved, stuttering can continue out of habit….neural pathways have been formed. Practicing clear speech in a non-threatening environment will help rewire new pathways and diminish the bad ones.

    It’s a strange affliction. Some times if you tell everyone and freely admit that you are a stutter, you don’t stutter.

    My stuttering started with childhood anxiety. It’s mostly gone now. Put pops up periodically, especially at loud parties where I’m trying to say something. I feel tongue tied.

    Reply
  7. Charles Michener -  March 9, 2011 - 2:43 pm

    I stuttered (more accurately, stammered) throughout childhood and suffered the usual embarrassment, self-induced for the most part. Perhaps children were kinder then.. Today, I rarely suffer from the problem, though I can get anxious when confronted with giving a public speech, which happens often. I think that accepting a lot of speaking engagements has helped enormously. Most stutterers I’ve encountered have been unusually intelligent and highly verbal, at least in their desire to communicate. Perhaps their facility with thoughts is greater than their ability to form the words. I’ve found it helpful to think before I speak, to breathe normally, to enunciate as clearly as possible and to imagine that I’m singing (singing stutterers don’t stutter). I’ve listened carefully to actors who speak with extraordinary clarity and mellifluousness (e.g. John Gielgud) and have tried to imagine myself as them. I try to think about where a thought is going and the most efficient way to express it, so I don’t get ambushed by a thorny word. My best advice to other stutterers is to be open with yourself. As I mentioned, most of the embarrassment we feel is inside our own heads. Almost universally, our listeners feel empathy for us when we can’t quite get the word out – not judgment.

    Reply
  8. Lola -  March 7, 2011 - 2:08 am

    There have been times when I’ve stuttered/stammered a bit when nervous. Now, I just plain can’t recall the words I mean to say!

    To the 10 year old: You’re probably as cute as a button, so you’re little stutter can be quite charming as you get a bit older. Work to get off the meds – they’re potent. Perhaps acting class or modeling class to boost self confidence. Stand up straight, suck in your tummy – work on excellent posture and strong core muscles. Your other attributes will outweigh any stutter. Laugh, it’s relaxing.

    Reply
  9. Dr. Robert Baker -  March 5, 2011 - 1:33 pm

    As a doctor(psychologist/psychoanalyst) who specializes in the successful treatment for people who stutter without meds/or treatment based on techniques to control the stutter, I discovered through research that stuttering is not a speech problem but a thought developmental process disorder. Once you remove the glitch, the stuttering is eliminated. I know this from my own personal experience, I stuttered until my late 40′s, then through treatment I eliminated my stuttering and went through a wonderful metamorphosis.

    Reply
  10. Curly -  March 4, 2011 - 3:57 am

    @Swampmaster:

    If speech is a form of communication, then “speech disorder” is more precise.

    Reply
  11. Anders -  March 4, 2011 - 2:17 am

    I saw on TV some years ago about someone who was helped by a sort of hearing aid. It did not make the sound louder but it delayed it for some tenths or hundredths of a second. As I remember it, he went directly from one who never talked to chairman of the student council.

    I never heard of it since.

    Reply
  12. Mtn Dew girl -  March 3, 2011 - 4:43 am

    This is for Rebekah

    I was told as a small child that I had ADD and ADHD. I had to take pills for it but as I grew I learned that I never really needed it to begin with because I can control my ADD and ADHD by myself. All it ever did for me was make me stop talking so much and then I would just sit there. Plus the doctors, down here where I live said they had to slowly work me off what I was taking because it could of killed me. So I would calmly sit my parents down if I was you and ask them to let you try one week off of adderal, you might be able to conrol your problem without taking it.

    Reply
  13. Swampmaster -  March 2, 2011 - 12:29 pm

    @Catherine

    Kind of a weird attempt at precision, as speech is a form of communication. A speech disorder is then necessarily a communication disorder…

    Reply
  14. animal crazy girl -  March 2, 2011 - 8:23 am

    please be nice to a person who stutters

    Reply
  15. animal crazy girl -  March 2, 2011 - 8:21 am

    i have a freind that stutters, and she gets made fun of. a speech disorder is not a way to take advantige of someone. its plain mean.

    Reply
  16. animal crazy girl -  March 2, 2011 - 8:18 am

    its an awsome article. i would like to see the move. and im also glad this move brought awareness to the problem.

    Reply
  17. louis paiz -  March 2, 2011 - 7:02 am

    to the mom that is worry about her son, just think that your son is brilliant stuttering is not going to still his knowlledge, take for example scott thurkinton the one talks and moves by computers but he knows the movements of planets present and future in spanish astuto means super dotado and i assume that stutter has the same word root . thanks

    Reply
  18. blackjacks -  March 1, 2011 - 8:47 pm

    that was in the notebook

    Reply
  19. Trixia -  March 1, 2011 - 7:15 pm

    In A Walk To Remember…the dude overcomes his childhood stuttering by reading out loud poetry :)

    Reply
  20. Trixia -  March 1, 2011 - 7:14 pm

    @Liza

    With singing, if you already know what you’re going to say/sing, then stuttering normally doesn’t occur. I occassionally stutter when I’m deliberating over which word I should use to express my thoughts or if I’m taking a while to string up a sentence, but when I sing along to songs I know the lyrics to it never happens.

    Reply
  21. Jaymes -  March 1, 2011 - 7:00 pm

    I have stuttered my entire life. A couple of times I have enjoyed a respite from the continuous, daily, persistent experience of stuttering. Those times (probably two or three at most)had been created mainly by assertive and courageous efforts on my part; either deliberately through conscious efforts in therapy, or, purely through approaching life in a way that puts the experience of stuttering where it belongs–the size of a pea in a little box in the back of my mind.

    Stuttering forces the recepients of this ancient problem (speech and yes…communication!) of the human condition to focus his or her attention while communicating to other humans, I believe, on creating a balance of true self expression with empathy, non-judgement, humour, kindness, and positive emotion. Forcing one to pay attention to how one
    speaks to others with integrity and honest forward moving communication with Heart, fearlessly. Stuttering is a tough and everpresent adversary.,`

    Reply
  22. nikki -  March 1, 2011 - 6:57 pm

    This is the type of things i would like to know more about. There should be more of these advertisements, thank goodness theres no more of the spanish ones…

    Reply
  23. Joe -  March 1, 2011 - 4:38 pm

    When I was younger I had a stuter but once I went through purberty it went away. Is there a connection?

    Reply
  24. Zoe -  March 1, 2011 - 3:51 pm

    I stutter myself, and it’s kind of nice to know what makes me do it. It is so embarrassing. I’m in middle school, so I get teased about it a lot. But, yes, it is true what they said about it being severe in different places. For me, it is bad when I get excited, and then I try to talk too fast, and then when I am in large crowds, I also talk too fast because I am afraid I won’t be heard. The key is to slow down. :)

    Reply
  25. cool ol me -  March 1, 2011 - 3:23 pm

    i stutter too

    Reply
  26. FRIENDSTUTTERS -  March 1, 2011 - 2:47 pm

    My friend stutters a lot, and we try to ignore it. He does not seem to be bothered with it. Why would you?

    Reply
  27. Rebekah -  March 1, 2011 - 1:13 pm

    I have ADHD. I sometimes stutter when I get nervous in front of people. I’m Only 10 going on 11 but I need to now why I have this. And is there a cure??? I take adderal but it doesn’t help me. It just keeps me from talking so much. Please answer me. Thanks. \(^o^)/

    Reply
  28. J -  March 1, 2011 - 11:49 am

    @ catherine: Speech is part of communication, therefore a speech disorder is a communication disorder. A speech disorder inhibits communication to a degree…

    Reply
  29. Guy -  March 1, 2011 - 11:41 am

    Interesting. To the Momofgenius. My late husband stuttered. He too had been in speach therapy from K-High School. His father also stuttered and I do not know of any other family member. I hear it’s common in males. My late husband was also a brilliant man. He did well in school and worked hard for all he achieved in his limited time with us.

    I know how you feel for your son. I am now a mother of twin boys turning 13yrs in April. They are my children from my current marriage. I didn’t not have any children with my late husband. I feel blessed that my first husband showed me so much in a short time. I learned patiences, I learned that we are all equal and but some have differeces. Our relationship made me who I am today.

    I’m sure your son will do well and all his future students will be as blessed as I feel I am today. From one Mom to another…we’ve done our job.

    I would say “yes and no” Stammering and stuttering can sound the same… a repeating of a sound or word several times before moving on in speech (like the skipping of a scratched CD or record), but…

    I think in English, when the word “stammer” is used, it means a person is hesitating in speech due to shock, surprise, fear, anger, confusion or a lack of being able to decide what to say next, and is usually lasts only a short time until they can collect their ideas and continue.

    “Stutter”, on the other hand is mostly used like the article says – to describe a person who’s speech is st-st-st-starts and st-st-stops (like that) in normal daily conversation, probably due to the way the brain comunicates with the mechanics of producing speech in the mouth.

    But, as far as how they sound when a person is doing them – a stammer sounds just like a stutter.

    I think that’s one reason a person who stutters is (sadly) often teased – they appear to be upset or confused all the time, when really they are not. Anyone think something different?

    Reply
  30. Raven Darkwing -  March 1, 2011 - 11:27 am

    To: momofgenius

    Don’t worry about your son. I have a teacher who stutters and no one ntices because she’s passionate about what she teaches. I also stutter. But I sing. So it really doesn’t affect me when I sing. And I’m sure your son will do fine. ;)

    Reply
  31. DIVVIE -  March 1, 2011 - 11:19 am

    Although stuttering is often a physiological and/or genetic disorder, I once had a colleague, a psychiatrist who stuttered during case conferences when others were present. He and I discussed the stammer and he shared that he was the youngest of nine children and found that he was able to get everyone’s attention during meals if he stuttered. Hence, his stutter was much more apparent when he was talking in a group. Therefore, it can also be psychological

    Reply
  32. Clonedcow -  March 1, 2011 - 10:45 am

    @Liza with a Z
    I don’t know if this is true, but my guess is that when you sing, you’re singing lyrics that are already thought out. All you have to do is remember and recite. However, when you talk you have to think about what you’re going to say, whether it’s consciously or subconsciously.

    Reply
  33. STUTTER | BLOGCHI@mayopia.com -  March 1, 2011 - 10:38 am

    [...] Stuttered through Grammar School and High School — we believe because of the Nuns — We stuttered [...]

    Reply
  34. Dan -  March 1, 2011 - 9:09 am

    @Karen
    It’s true in my case, headaches definitely cause it. I’m usually stammer/stutter “-free”, but I’m just awful when a headache sets in (I suffer from terrible sinusitis). Headaches & being tired.

    But what’s the link with the cervical spine?

    Reply
  35. rita -  March 1, 2011 - 8:03 am

    I have been a long time suffer of this disorder and it has cause much pain and suffering as I was going up as a child and a young adult but I finally realized that its ok to get stock but if you can just stop thinking and start breathing slowly the word come out a little easier or just hum your words.

    The ceo of the coca cola was also a stutterer

    Reply
  36. bjvl -  March 1, 2011 - 7:28 am

    @mom of genius

    Try the things Lionel has Bertie do in the movie–they’re actually quite legitimate techniques for overcoming stuttering.

    Reply
  37. D Williamson -  March 1, 2011 - 7:26 am

    A distinction is sometimes made in that stammerers will hesitate by repeating a word,
    while stutterers will repeat a single syllable.

    Reply
  38. Karen -  March 1, 2011 - 7:16 am

    It can also be exacerbated by physical pain, including headaches and neurological pain, especially in the cervical spine.

    Reply
  39. late husband stuttered -  March 1, 2011 - 7:08 am

    Interesting. To the Momofgenius. My late husband stuttered. He too had been in speach therapy from K-High School. His father also stuttered and I do not know of any other family member. I hear it’s common in males. My late husband was also a brilliant man. He did well in school and worked hard for all he achieved in his limited time with us.

    I know how you feel for your son. I am now a mother of twin boys turning 13yrs in April. They are my children from my current marriage. I didn’t not have any children with my late husband. I feel blessed that my first husband showed me so much in a short time. I learned patiences, I learned that we are all equal and but some have differeces. Our relationship made me who I am today.

    I’m sure your son will do well and all his future students will be as blessed as I feel I am today. From one Mom to another…we’ve done our job.

    Reply
  40. David -  March 1, 2011 - 6:48 am

    @ venkatesh
    I would say “yes and no” Stammering and stuttering can sound the same… a repeating of a sound or word several times before moving on in speech (like the skipping of a scratched CD or record), but…

    I think in English, when the word “stammer” is used, it means a person is hesitating in speech due to shock, surprise, fear, anger, confusion or a lack of being able to decide what to say next, and is usually lasts only a short time until they can collect their ideas and continue.

    “Stutter”, on the other hand is mostly used like the article says – to describe a person who’s speech is st-st-st-starts and st-st-stops (like that) in normal daily conversation, probably due to the way the brain comunicates with the mechanics of producing speech in the mouth.

    But, as far as how they sound when a person is doing them – a stammer sounds just like a stutter.

    I think that’s one reason a person who stutters is (sadly) often teased – they appear to be upset or confused all the time, when really they are not. Anyone think something different?

    Reply
  41. josh -  March 1, 2011 - 5:39 am

    i have a friend who’s brother stutters like a scratched cd (no offense meant) and its kinda heartbreaking to hear someone have that hard of a time speaking

    Reply
  42. Liza with a Z -  March 1, 2011 - 5:32 am

    I wonder why a person can stutter while talking, but when singing, the speech is fluid? There’s a couple singers who stutter but can sing without the issue.

    Reply
  43. BudB -  March 1, 2011 - 5:22 am

    I am so glad to see this article and there are too many people who think that stammering and stuttering are two different things. It is just that there are different forms of stammering/stuttering as you mentioned. “Blocking” is a form of stuttering just like repetitions. I had several uncles who stuttered but none of them stuttered exactly alike.

    Momofgenius, your son might consider either one of the electronic devices to see if one will work for him, but they do not fix stuttering permanently and are only useful in one on one conversations or for presentations, I have read, because they play back every single sound if outside or in a crowd or restaurant. The Stuttering Foundation lists several companies and their prices. Another thing might be to try one of the drugs the Foundation lists that have helped other stutterers (look under “basic research”). The main thing is for him to concentrate on what he is saying rather than how he is saying it and just stutter on through.

    Kristina, the Stuttering Foundation posts research on their web site and has them in their newsletters. Read the one by Anne Foundas; she mentions the “planum temporale.” It is at http://www.stutteringhelp.org/DeskLeftDefault.aspx?tabid=165

    Reply
  44. Nitasha saini -  March 1, 2011 - 5:13 am

    Would like to know if there is any cure for such disorder?? And what can be done other than speech therapy to improve it..??

    Reply
  45. Mtn Dew girl -  March 1, 2011 - 4:40 am

    I use to stutter when I was younger and had to go through 3 years of speech therapy. It helpped me a lot. I am a Jr. in high school, and I have been told by my english four teacher that I am one of her best students to give speeches and that I am a great writer. I hope to become a writer someday and be as great as a teacher as my english teacher.

    Reply
  46. ... -  March 1, 2011 - 2:29 am

    Nice article. :)

    Reply
  47. Carlo -  March 1, 2011 - 2:06 am

    Mom,

    Don’t fear for your son. Know that in the world of academia, he won’t be judged by his stutter. It might be uncomfortable for him and his listeners, but let his mathematics do the real talking.

    Reply
  48. Hira -  March 1, 2011 - 1:43 am

    I would like to know the answer to the above query plz i.e what part of the brain is affected?Also,Can it be due to lack of confidence when the genetics is not a factor?

    Reply
  49. Catherine -  March 1, 2011 - 1:27 am

    Re: “Stuttering is a communication disorder…” It is categorically a speech disorder and not a communication disorder.

    Reply
  50. Art Gourdikian -  March 1, 2011 - 12:20 am

    Lucky of me to notice the stuttering write up. I have difficulty in speaking smoothly that remained with me when I was approximately 5-6 years.till now at the age 77. I don’t stutter heavily. However, I do not speak smoothly and at times I get hung up on a word that is hard to utter. This phenomena happens more when I am nervous, under stress and anxiety. It bothers me all through my life, to the extend where I don’t want to participate group discussions and give a speech in front of a group!!
    Is there a remedy? or physical therapy to reduce and irradicate stuttering?

    Reply
  51. Melody -  March 1, 2011 - 12:09 am

    Great Article Dictionary.com! Love it! Yeah, I would stutter too… It’s interesting to create an article on stuttering!

    And I’m thrilled to see there’s finally a pause in the Spanish articles!

    Thank you! Keep up the great articles!

    -Melody :)

    Reply
  52. Kristina -  February 28, 2011 - 11:54 pm

    What part of the brain is affected when one is diagnosed with the disorder?

    Reply
  53. momofgenius -  February 28, 2011 - 11:53 pm

    Is there a cure? My son is a brilliant mathemetician, will have his PhD in abstract mathematics in 2 months, has taught mathematics at the university level for the past 8 years. His PhD dissertation is coming up, and I know he’s so terrified of this and having to talk and lecture to his peers. It doesn’t seem to bother him so much to talk to his students. He’s had speech therapy from kindergarten up through middle school with no change. His stutter started when he was 2 years old and trying to say “elephant.” His dad stutters also, as did his grandfather and brother. It’s heartbreaking to know what he’s facing.

    Reply
  54. venkatesh -  February 28, 2011 - 11:38 pm

    Is Stammer and Stutter are the same?

    Reply

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