Dictionary.com

There are many reasons to be thankful for the benefits of modern living ― antibiotics, airplanes, velcro . . . Another subtle but essential item is our calendar. It may have some frustrating moments, but consider how months used to work. Take heed of Mercedonius.

In the days of the Roman calendar, an intercalary month was added in leap years and a few other times as well. This month was called Mercedonius, but it was also known as Intercalaris.

(The insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some years is called “intercalation.” Intercalation is done to align the calendar with the seasons or moon phases.)

The name Mercedonius comes from the Latin word “merces,” which means “wages.” It got its name because workers were paid at the time of year Mercedonius occurred, around the month of Februarius.

The addition of Mercedonius didn’t happen automatically. The decision was made by the high priest of the College of Pontiffs, who was also known as the Pontifex Maximus. The Pontifex Maximus, Latin for “greatest bridge-maker,” was the head honcho of the ancient Roman religion.

(As we end January, learn the name of the unusual Roman god who is the month’s namesake, and the meaning behind his two faces, here.)

The Pontifex Maximus was supposed to base the decision whether to include Mercedonius in any given year so that the calendar would correspond with the seasons. Politics, however, are said to have motivated his decision making. For example, Mercedonius was sometimes inserted to allow a government official to stay in office longer.

You can imagine the confusion that this caused. If you were living outside of Rome, you might have no idea what the current date was.

In 46 BC, Julius Caesar introduced the Julian calendar and did away with Mercedonius. Can you guess the month that was named in honor of him? Find the answer, here.

Children and teens told by doctors that they were overweight–United States, 1999-2002.

MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report September 2, 2005 | Ogden, C.L.; Tabak, C.J.

The percentage of children and teens aged 6-19 years in the United States who are overweight nearly tripled to 16% during 1980-2002 (1). Overweight and obese children and teens are at greater risk for many comorbid conditions, both immediate and long-term (2). Their risk is approximately 10 times greater than that of normal weight children for hypertension in young adulthood, three to eight times greater for dyslipidemias, and more than twice as great for diabetes mellitus (2). To determine what percentage of overweight children (or their parents) and teens were ever told their weight status by doctors or other health-care professionals, CDC analyzed data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which determined that 36.7% of overweight children and teens aged 2-19 years had been told by a doctor or other health-care professional that they were overweight, and teens aged 16-19 years were more likely to be told than parents of children aged 2-11 years. By discussing weight status with overweight patients and their parents, pediatric health-care providers might help these patients implement lifelong improvements in diet and physical activity.

NHANES is an ongoing series of cross-sectional surveys on health and nutrition designed to be nationally representative of the noninstitutionalized, U.S. civilian population by using a complex, multistage probability design. * During 1999-2002, populations of persons aged 12-19 years, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans were among those oversampled. The analyses described in this report include data from 1,473 children and teens aged 2-19 years who were determined to be overweight. This sample represented the approximately 10.3% of U.S. children aged 2-5 years and 16.0% of children and teens aged 6-19 years who were overweight. Overweight was defined as having a body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) [greater than or equal to] 95th percentile on the BMI-for-age, sex-specific 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States. [dagger] Parents of overweight children aged 2-11 years were asked, “Has a doctor or health professional ever told you that [child] was overweight?” Parents of those aged 12-15 years were asked, “Has a doctor or health professional ever told [child] that he/ she was overweight?” Teens aged 16-19 years were asked, “Has a doctor or health professional ever told you that you were overweight?” Results were stratified by sex and age and by sex and race/ ethnicity. Pregnant females were excluded from analysis. Weighted prevalence estimates were calculated. A chi-square test for trend was performed to evaluate the effect of age. Individual t-tests were performed to test differences between racial/ethnic populations. The cutoff for statistical significance was p = 0.05. Bonferroni adjustments were used to account for multiple comparisons between racial/ethnic populations. here cdc growth charts

Among all overweight children and teens aged 2-19 years (or their parents), 36.7% reported having ever been told by a doctor or health-care professional that they were overweight (Table). A significant increasing trend (p Editorial Note: Annual well-child visits to health-care professionals should include measurement of BMI to determine weight status, as recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (3). Without intervention, many overweight children will grow up to be overweight or obese adults (4,5). The following four behavioral strategies are recommended for families with overweight children: controlling the environment, monitoring behavior, setting goals, and rewarding successful changes in behavior (6). Families with overweight children might be more motivated to make these changes if they are recommended by a doctor or health-care professional.

In a study of adults who had visited their physicians for routine checkups during the preceding 12 months, fewer than half of those classified as obese (i.e., BMI >30 kg/[m.sup.2]) reported being advised by their health-care professionals to lose weight (7). A study of 473 children in Kentucky determined that overweight condition had been diagnosed in only 29% of 93 overweight children (i.e., BMI [greater than or equal to] 95th percentile); however, that study did not report whether the diagnoses were shared with children and parents (8).

In the study described in this report, significant differences in being informed of overweight status were observed by age group and race/ethnicity. For example, 51.6% of teens aged 16-19 years were informed of their overweight status, but only 17.4% of parents of children aged 2-5 years were informed, possibly suggesting reluctance by health-care providers to inform parents of the weight status of very young overweight children. In addition, non-Hispanic black females were more likely to be told that they were overweight than were non-Hispanic white females. However, 39% of non-Hispanic black females informed of overweight status were severely overweight, compared with 17% of non-Hispanic white females. Health-care providers might have been more likely to discuss weight status with patients who were severely overweight.

The findings in this report are subject to at least three limitations. First, NHANES data are cross-sectional and therefore cannot capture information about duration of overweight in these children and teens; a longer duration of overweight might have made a provider more likely to inform a child or parent of the child’s overweight status. Second, teens might have had more visits to a health-care professional than young children and therefore more opportunities to be told of their overweight status; however, multiple logistic regression controlling for number of health-care visits during the preceding year produced similar results. Third, the question regarding being told of overweight status was asked of parents for children and teens ages 2-15 years and of teens themselves for those aged 16-19 years. Overweight teens might answer this question differently than parents of overweight children, resulting in either a lesser or greater difference among age groups in reports of being told of overweight status. cdcgrowthchartsnow.net cdc growth charts

Among overweight children who become obese adults, earlier onset of childhood overweight is associated with higher BMI in adulthood (9). Previous findings suggest that children begin to respond to environmental cues regarding dietary patterns by age 5 years (10). Thus, early recognition and discussion of overweight status is a necessary first step to developing healthier lifelong behaviors. Addressing overweight among children and teens requires recognition by health-care providers, discussion of potential consequences with families, acknowledgment of those consequences by families of affected children, and a commitment to work together toward attaining a healthier lifestyle (6).

References (2.) Must A, Strauss RS. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23(Suppl 2):S2-S11.

(3.) Krebs NF, Jacobson MS; American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Prevention of pediatric overweight and obesity. Pediatrics 2003;112:424-30.

(4.) Serdula MK, Ivery D, Coates RJ, Freedman DS, Williamson DF, Byers T. Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature. Prev Med 1993;22:167-77.

(5.) Guo SS, Wu W, Chumlea WC, Roche AF. Predicting overweight and obesity in adulthood from body mass index values in childhood and adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:653-8.

(6.) Dietz WH, Robinson TN. Overweight children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 2005;352:2100-9.

(7.) Galuska DA, Will JC, Serdula MK, Ford ES. Are health care professionals advising obese patients to lose weight? JAMA 1999;282:1576-8.

(8.) Louthan MV, Lafferty-Oza MJ, Smith ER, Hornung CA, Franco S, Theriot JA. Diagnosis and treatment frequency for overweight children and adolescents at well child visits. Clinical Pediatr(Phila) 2005;44:57-61.

(9.) Freedman DS, Khan LK, Dietz WH, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS. Relationship of childhood obesity to coronary heart disease risk factors in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 2001; 108:712-8.

(10.) Rolls BJ, Engell D, Birch LL. Serving portion size influences 5-year-old but not 3-year-old children’s food intakes. J Am Diet Assoc 2000;100:232-4.

CL Ogden, PhD, National Center for Health Statistics; CJ Tabak, MD, EIS Officer, CDC.

TABLE. Number and percentage of overweight * children and teens aged 2-19 years ever told by a doctor or health professional that they were overweight, by age group and race/ethnicity–National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 1999-2002

Total No. in sample % (95% CI ([dagger])) Age group (yrs) ([subsection]) 2-5 161 17.4 (10.8-26.9) 6-11 411 32.6 (24.9-41.3) 12-15 511 39.6 (31.9-47.8) 16-19 390 51.6 (41.7-61.3)

Race/Ethnicity

White, non-Hispanic 280 34.7 (28.0-42.0) Black, non-Hispanic 456 43.4 (38.1-48.8) Mexican American 608 37.3 (31.5-43.4)

Total ** 1,473 36.7 (31.9-41.9)

Males Females % (95% CI) % (95% CI) Age group (yrs) ([subsection]) 2-5 17.0 (9.0-29.8) 17.8 (8.7-32.9 6-11 33.8 (25.8-42.9) 31.1 (21.1-43.2) 12-15 36.0 (26.2-47.2) 43.2 (33.1-54.0) 16-19 50.7 (37.1-64.1) 52.8 (42.1-63.2)

Race/Ethnicity

White, non-Hispanic 37.9 (28.8-47.9) 31.0 (23.4-39.7) Black, non-Hispanic 38.4 (30.1-47.4) 47.4 (40.8-54.2) Mexican American 37.2 (30.6-44.3) 37.3 (29.3-46.1)

Total ** 36.5 (30.0-43.4 37.1 (31.8-42.6)

* Defined as having a body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) [greater than or equal to] 95th percentile on the BMI-for-age, sex-specific 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States.

([dagger]) Confidence interval.

([subsection]) Statistically significant (p Ogden, C.L.; Tabak, C.J.

50 Comments

  1. Paul -  March 23, 2013 - 1:53 pm

    This article hardly touches on the confusion that existed in the Roman calendar before the introduction of the Julian calendar. Many calendars in the ancient world were confusing. The Egyptians used to observe three separate calendars simultaneously.

    As I recall, the Roman Empire was observing an eight-day week during the first century. I’ve heard that, as the Jews spread through the Empire and became notably businessmen and bankers, their observation of a seven-day week encouraged the same by those who worked with them.

    I believe the Chinese, Japanese, and others around them observed a lunar (or lunar-solar) calendar with three weeks in each month, each about ten days long. There was a specific character (not the one currently used for “week”) that was used and prefixed by either “beginning”, “middle”, or “ending”.

    Reply
  2. Gruntly -  January 31, 2011 - 11:42 pm

    And also, thank you as well for the knowledge Frankie…

    Reply
  3. Gruntly -  January 31, 2011 - 11:39 pm

    @Isabella and Curly.

    I agree with Isabella. Actually the Mayans didn’t use the 7 day week, nor would any civilization not related to Christianity. The earths physical placement has no correlation with weeks, whereas, days, months, and years do. And the influence of where the 7 days came from is beyond my knowledge at the moment. I can only assume it was pushed heavily by something to do with politics…

    Reply
  4. Isabella -  January 31, 2011 - 12:23 am

    Thanks for the info about Mozambique, Frankie. The bit about the finger segments is very clever, but I think maybe too clever for primitive use. The weeks representing quarters of the moon sounds great, but gets me wondering if actual weeks neatly coincide with the quarters. I never could learn the gear shifts in a car – it stopped me learning how to drive. Co-ordination is my dumb area.

    Reply
  5. frankie -  January 30, 2011 - 4:31 pm

    @ Isabella – you’re absolutely right. I used to live in an area of Mozambique where (until colonisation) people observed a five-day week. I was told that was because they could be counted on one hand and – with hot weather and easily perishable items for sale – the fifth day being the market day made more sense.

    On the other hand, especially if one uses fingers for counting and the moon for keeping track of time, there are 28 segments of the fingers on both hands (palms up, counting the spaces between the joints – possibly making counting out a fortnight – fourteen nights – easy?), the lunar month is about 28 days, and there are four phases of the moon that are easily identifiable:
    new moon to first quarter (via waxing crescent),
    first quarter to full moon (via waxing gibbous),
    full moon to last quarter (via waning gibbous),
    last quarter to new moon (via waning crescent).
    But that’s just my conjecture.

    Reply
  6. ag -  January 29, 2011 - 6:11 pm

    @ smoothius… does kate have balls? lol=))

    Reply
  7. smoothius -  January 29, 2011 - 8:08 am

    sorry kate but i think i can speak for many of the regulars here on hotword that cyberquill’s remarks are generally witty, entertaining, and well received. maybe you should ‘take your ball and go home’.

    Reply
  8. Moon Doggie -  January 29, 2011 - 5:06 am

    It is fascinating to watch how passionate we can get about words and our communication systems… words are simply symbols that represent concepts that can mean very different things to different people.

    And, as a quick aside… as I read through this blog, I get the strong impression that some people should not share the ‘inner mental dialogue’ that they are having with themselves…

    it tends to scare the other natives, and confirms the fragility of our systems for communicating logical concepts.

    Reply
  9. Anonymous -  January 28, 2011 - 2:30 pm

    I’ve heard that Julius Augustus invented the months July and August, or SOMETHING like that.

    Reply
  10. Isabella -  January 28, 2011 - 1:22 pm

    Whoops – verbo is Italian. The Latin, if my rapidly deteriorating memory serves me, is “Verbum” – second declension neuter. I have a memory like Jimminy Cricket – sitting on my shoulder and prodding me from time to time in a very critical manner. Still, it’s just fun, isn’t it? The capital letter for Verbum I really do think should be there – it is not just any old verbum, is it?

    Reply
  11. Isabella -  January 28, 2011 - 10:41 am

    But what about the Chinese, Curly? I mean, they didn’t have the Old Testament, did they? Years are natural. Months are natural. Days are natural. Without the Bible, I am not sure that weeks should even exist.

    And here’s me with a good A level in French forgetting about the capitals! I knew there was something niggling! Thank you Vince S!
    In principio erat Verbo. I bet I’ve forgotten some of the Latin as well!

    Reply
  12. melissa -  January 28, 2011 - 10:05 am

    don’t know what ur talking bout but i’ll just go with the flow. :-]

    Reply
  13. pizza -  January 28, 2011 - 9:17 am

    dinosuars rule

    Reply
  14. muelswyf -  January 28, 2011 - 9:14 am

    Moanday
    Tootsday (refers to drugs, NOT flatulence)
    Humpday
    Weekend Eve

    Reply
  15. DIVVIE -  January 28, 2011 - 7:01 am

    WOW, it’s getting crazier and crazier every day. The IT I refer to is this blog

    Reply
  16. Xero -  January 28, 2011 - 6:20 am

    Does this blog even do any research, or do we just get all of our “facts” from wikipedia or something? Does a high school student write this drivel?
    You should all run from this blog and try opening an actual book instead of believing all of the crap that’s on the internet. There are actual scholars out there doing actual research that you could really learn from. Try not to take some pseudo intellectual site whose only real purpose is to sell ad space too seriously.

    Reply
  17. Aporia -  January 28, 2011 - 5:36 am

    @Abby: True, but in English we also spell “u” as “you.” Just a heads-up. :)

    Reply
  18. Vince S -  January 28, 2011 - 5:12 am

    REPLY TO:
    When u are talking about months in French and Spanish you DO NOT CAPITALIZE!!!!!
    I’m sorry, but that frustrates me so much!
    It is “mercredi” rather than “Mercredi” and “miércoles” rather than “Miércoles”…

    Whoa Abby, calm your s*** down. That is no reason to go postal, and or al-Qaeda, its not like people here are trying to educate future generations. nOw tEll mE; d0Es tH1S sTAtemenT mAk3 U aLL tWiTChY &Nd HoMiCID@l ?Q??

    Reply
  19. yo momma -  January 28, 2011 - 4:56 am

    wow

    Reply
  20. darpu -  January 28, 2011 - 4:21 am

    The month of July was named after Julius Caesar. :)

    Reply
  21. jacko23 -  January 27, 2011 - 11:32 pm

    The days of the week came from the Norse. Monday = Moonday; Wednesday = Woden’s Day; Thursday = Thor’s Day; Saturday = Saturn’s Day; Sunday = Sun’s Day, etc. Google: “days of week; origins”

    Reply
  22. hi -  January 27, 2011 - 6:48 pm

    Reply
  23. Abby -  January 27, 2011 - 6:38 pm

    When u are talking about months in French and Spanish you DO NOT CAPITALIZE!!!!!
    I’m sorry, but that frustrates me so much!
    It is “mercredi” rather than “Mercredi” and “miércoles” rather than “Miércoles”…

    Reply
  24. zanger -  January 27, 2011 - 6:33 pm

    i dont even know wat u people r talking about, so i’ll just go with it!

    Reply
  25. Freshman in High School. -  January 27, 2011 - 5:08 pm

    Dear Girl in HS,
    I was genuinely intrigued by this article, thus the reason I read it.

    Reply
  26. Curly -  January 27, 2011 - 4:49 pm

    @Isabella:

    There have been seven days in the week since the beginning of time, as I’m sure you’ll recall if you are even slightly familiar with the Bible. Since then, people have just grown so used to a seven-day week that Napoleon was unsuccessful in his endeavor to change it.

    Reply
  27. sonia -  January 27, 2011 - 4:28 pm

    I love you, hot word, and your readers with their interesting reactions.

    Reply
  28. girl in hs -  January 27, 2011 - 3:25 pm

    wow i read this cuz my teacher read it and wanted us to said to read the comments so thats my reason to read this wats urs?

    Reply
  29. Ale Canaya -  January 27, 2011 - 12:16 pm

    The days in Spanish relate to the planets: “Lunes” (Monday) from “Luna” (Moon – they thought it was a planet), “Martes” (Tuesday) from “Marte” (Mars), “Miércoles” (Wednesday) from “Mercurio” (Mercury), “Jueves” (Thursday) from Jupiter, “Viernes” (Friday) from Venus and “Sábado” (Saturday) from “Saturno” (Saturn). “Domingo” (Sunday) was the day of the sun originally, but later religiosly took the name of “Day of the Lord” (Dies Domini in Latin).

    Reply
  30. xexexe -  January 27, 2011 - 11:41 am

    @Svenjamin
    I believe Wednesday was supposed to have derived from “Mercury”:

    Sunday = Sun
    Monday = Moon
    Tuesday = Mars (Tiw)
    Wednesday = Mercury (Wodan)
    Thursday = Jupiter (Thor)
    Friday = Venus (Frige)
    Saturday = Saturn

    Reply
  31. Isabella -  January 27, 2011 - 10:52 am

    And isn’t Mercredi derived from the got Mercury? Jeudi is Jove’s day. Vendredi belongs to Venus, Samedi is named for Saturn. Lundi is the day of the Moon. Mardi is the day of Mars. I can’t remember Dimanche. The “di” bit is another version of “day” – but why “manche”?

    Reply
  32. Isabella -  January 27, 2011 - 10:46 am

    I see I have successfully submitted the above comment. Any answers will receive my full and eager attention.

    Reply
  33. Isabella -  January 27, 2011 - 10:43 am

    Coincidentally, there I was sitting drinking my tea and idly wondering why there are seven days in a week. Are there seven days in a week world wide. has any nation (except France under Napoleon?) attempted to have the calendar done differeintly? I think I remember, from years ago, learning that Napoleon had a go at introducing a ten-day week. Is that true or was I misinformed?

    Reply
  34. JJ Rousseau -  January 27, 2011 - 10:38 am

    We always appreciate Non Sequitur — in the month of Janus we roll — There’s always more than one side to a story — Go ask Alice down in the Rabbit Hole. Oui?

    Reply
  35. Melissa -  January 27, 2011 - 10:30 am

    These comments are inane, with the exception of Svenjamin.

    Reply
  36. Markv -  January 27, 2011 - 9:54 am

    I thought about the Mercedonius / Mecredi link, but i think the inversion of the C and R disqualify it.

    Could have a connection to Mercedes(Car) though?

    Reply
  37. AMY-LOU -  January 27, 2011 - 9:34 am

    Wow.This is really lame i have no reason to even read something this stupid so uh bye!!!!!!!!!!

    Reply
  38. David -  January 27, 2011 - 8:31 am

    Shouldn’t that be ‘honcho’, rather than ‘honco’?

    Reply
  39. Kate -  January 27, 2011 - 8:26 am

    good question Svenjamin
    Cyberquill – lighten up – you’re cleverness pales next to your consistant snide comments – this is fun, if you’re not having fun, please take your ball and go home

    Reply
  40. Waldo Pepper -  January 27, 2011 - 8:24 am

    [...]still first[...]

    Reply
  41. Ben -  January 27, 2011 - 8:17 am

    i think July has been named after Julius.. and i think they have tackled that on a previous hot word..right?

    Reply
  42. Svenjamin -  January 27, 2011 - 7:17 am

    Makes you wonder if ‘miercoles’ (Spanish) and ‘Mercredi’ (French), both words for Wednesday are derived from the word ‘merces’. Dictionary.com, any comment?

    Reply
  43. Tayba -  January 27, 2011 - 7:02 am

    Augustus Caesar named the month of August.

    Julius named July.

    Reply
  44. Rickedy Rick -  January 27, 2011 - 6:56 am

    Yo. It’s the green machine. Gonna Rock the town without bein’ seen. Have you ever seen a turtle get down? Slammin’ and jammin’ to the new ice sound. Yo. Gonna rock the place, with the sound of the ninja turtle bass. Iceman. Know what I’m sayin’, devastatin’ action, you know I’m not playin’.

    Reply
  45. juggs -  January 27, 2011 - 6:14 am

    “head honco” or “head honcHo”?

    Reply
  46. Alex -  January 27, 2011 - 6:02 am

    Cos of the gods, or Angels as they are sometimes known, we have a calendar.

    Reply
  47. alan -  January 27, 2011 - 5:48 am

    check the spelling for honco / honcho.

    Reply
  48. Cyberquill -  January 26, 2011 - 7:50 pm

    Can I guess what month was named after a guy named Julius? I dunno. August?

    Reply
  49. smoothius -  January 26, 2011 - 2:14 pm

    so they only got paid once per year?! they must have been budget masters!

    Reply
  50. MERCEDONIUS | BLOGCHI@mayopia.com -  January 26, 2011 - 1:21 pm

    [...] Mercy Donuts Mercedonius We — Human beans in some Dumpster Stew of intercalary. — If it’s politically feasible, — we simply make it up. — The catsup bottle’s squeezable. — Rousseau still thinks he’s a pup. — There’s more than one way to ‘skin a cat’ — or have a hot dog on a bun. — Mercy, mercy donuts — we’ll call that – ‘Hot Word Chow Fun’. –>>Rupert L.T.Rhyme [...]

    Reply

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