Want to meet two extinct letters of the alphabet? Learn what “thorn” and “wynn” sounded like

The English alphabet, as you likely know, is made up of 26 letters.

But it wasn’t always that way.

Before we get to which letters were late additions, let’s explain a bit about Old English. English was first written in the Anglo-Saxon futhorc runic alphabet, also known as Anglo-Saxon. The Angles and Saxons came from Germany and settled in Britain in the fifth century. The region they inhabited became known as “Angle-land,” or “England.”

Eventually, Christian missionaries introduced the Latin alphabet, which ultimately replaced Anglo-Saxon. But for some time, the alphabet included the letters of the Latin alphabet, some symbols (like the ampersand), and some letters of Old English.

As Modern English evolved, the Old English letters were dropped or replaced.

(Our trusty alphabet isn’t the only part of language that has changed — October used to be the eighth month, and September the seventh. What happened? Find out here.)

Here’s an example: In Old English, a letter called “thorn” represented the “th” sound (as in “that”) in Modern English. In the Latin alphabet, the “y” was the symbol that most closely resembled the character that represented thorn. So, thorn was dropped and “y” took its place. (But is “y” a vowel or a consonant? We explore the dilemma here.)

That is why the word “ye,” as in “Ye Olde Booke Shoppe,” is an archaic spelling of “the.”

The Old English letter “wynn” was replaced by “uu,” which eventually developed into the modern w. (It really is a double u.)

The letters “u” and “j” didn’t join what we know as the alphabet until the sixteenth century.

Now consider ancient history influences days of the week. Who is the attractive goddess that Friday is named for? Here’s that odd and entertaining story.

RESTAURANT REQUESTS; Chicken salad recipe from Kozlak’s Royal Oak.(TASTE) see here chicken salad sandwich recipe

Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN) January 11, 2001 | Osby, Diane Q. I would like the almond chicken salad sandwich recipe from Kozlak’s Royal Oak Restaurant.

- Peggy Louis, Cannon Falls A. Here is the chicken salad recipe sent from Kozlak’s Royal Oak Restaurant, 4785 Hodgson Rd., Shoreview.

Kozlak’s Royal Oak Restaurant Almond Chicken Salad X Makes 6 cups.

- 2 (10-oz.) cans chicken – 6 green onions, chopped – 4 ribs celery, chopped – 1 c. sliced almonds, toasted – 1 (7-oz.) jar red pepper, rinsed, drained and diced – 1 1/2 c. mayonnaise – Salt and white pepper to taste In a bowl, combine chicken, onions, celery, almonds and red pepper. Add mayonnaise, salt and white pepper to taste. Chill. Serve with your choice of bread. web site chicken salad sandwich recipe

Nutrition information per 1/4 cup serving:

Calories 165 Carbohydrates 2 g Protein 6 g Fat 15 g including sat. fat 2 g Cholesterol 23 mg Sodium 221 mg Calcium 22 mg Dietary fiber 1 g Diabetic exchanges per serving: 1 med-fat meat exch., and 2 fat exch.

X Recipe has been tested.

Osby, Diane

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