If you were go into a Christian church in America, the congregation would probably be speaking English, maybe Spanish, maybe another modern language. But they almost definitely would not be speaking Aramaic or Greek, the languages that the Christian Bible was written in. So why do we not read the Bible in Greek? And how many languages has the Bible been translated into?

The story of translating the Bible actually starts before Christianity. 200 years before the Common Era (C.E.),  the Old Testament (the part of the text that is sacred to Jews) was translated into Ancient Greek by a group of rabbinic scholars. This Greek version is called the Septuagint.

The Christian Bible was written in Koine Greek. Even though Jesus primarily spoke Aramaic, Greek was the common language of the era and the most widely spoken language of the region. Aramaic is related to Biblical Hebrew. (Languages from the World of the Bible, a new academic book, explores the linguistic diversity of the first century, from Old and Imperial Aramaic to Phoenician and others.) A few portions of the Old Testament that are also in the Christian Bible, such as the Book of Daniel, were originally written in Aramaic.

Since we don’t still read the Bible in Koine Greek, how has the language of Bible changed since the founding of the Christian Church? Well the language that the Bible was written in cannot change, but the languages spoken in churches and by everyday people change all the time. (English alone has changed significantly in the past six hundred years.)

As with any translation, there are things you cannot say in one language that you can in others. For example, in Aramaic, there is a suffix that denotes “servant of.” In the Book of Daniel, one person’s name is Abednego. Technically, in the Aramaic that name means “servant of Nego,” but this meaning does not carry over into the Greek translation, so readers of the Greek (and subsequently the Latin and English) do not understand that this man is also a servant. A much more dramatic and theologically relevant example of translation problems lies in the Hebrew word, “almah.” In the Old Testament, a young woman, or maiden, was called “almah.” However, in the Septuagint, this word is translated into the Greek as “parthenos” which means, more precisely, “a virgin.” This is complicated because the Book of Matthew, in the New Testament, quotes this Greek translation and describes Jesus as being “born of a virgin.” However, in the Hebrew, the direct translation would have been “born of a young woman.” This linguistic nuance between Hebrew and Greek can be very contentious, as you might imagine.

In the late 300s, Saint Jerome (along with other scholars) translated the Bible into Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. Rather than translating from the Septuagint, St. Jerome used the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament and the Koine Greek of the New Testament as the basis for his translation into Latin, called the Vulgate. When there were contradictions between the Septuagint and the original Hebrew (as in the case of “almah”) St. Jerome followed the Septuagint’s interpretation.

When did the standard English translation come about? Though there had been earlier English translations of the Bible, the King James Bible (commissioned by the King of England in 1604) became the standard bearer for the new branches of Christianity that were splitting from the Catholic Church. The King James Bible was primarily translated from the original languages, so the Old Testament was translated from the Hebrew and the New Testament from the Greek (rather than the later Latin versions). However, where there was dispute about specific translation decisions, the Septuagint and the Vulgate were used as references.

Of course, in addition to Latin and English, the Bible has been translated into at least hundreds of other languages, possibly as many as 3,000. The United Bible Societies widely translates and distributes Bibles.

Recently, an American president’s own multilingual dictionary came to light. Jefferson’s Bible, which the 3rd President spent decades working on, features different versions of the Bible side-by-side, including Latin, Greek, French, and English selections. Officially titled The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, Jefferson’s Bible is now on view at the Smithsonian Museum in Washington, D.C, and the museum has made the entire book available online here.

What do you think about the translation details of the Bible? Are you interested in Jefferson’s multilingual Bible?

Immigration and Naturalization Issues in the Deployed Environment

Army Lawyer October 1, 2005 | Defreyn, Marc; Baughn, Darrell Naturalization is an important issue for many U.S. Army Soldiers, especially for those Soldiers deployed overseas, and, more specifically, those Soldiers deployed in the combat zone in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). The privilege of U.S. citizenship brings not only significant benefits to the Soldier, such as the opportunity to reenlist beyond eight years of service2 and the ability to obtain a security clearance,3, but also provides collateral opportunities and benefits to the Soldier’s dependents and other family members.4 Although historically the process of immigrating to the United States and eventually becoming a citizen has been known to be slow and cumbersome, even for Soldiers, recent changes to United States law and policy have created extraordinary opportunities for Soldiers to naturalize more quickly and inexpensively than ever before. For example, for the first time in U.S. military history, non-U.S. citizen servicemembers may utilize expedited procedures and are entitled to preferential considerations in order to become U.S. citizens on foreign soil if they are serving in support of the Global War on Terror.5 This article addresses naturalization issues of recent relevance to servicemembers, with emphasis on procedures and advice for Legal Assistance office personnel in the deployed environment.

On 4 October 2004, forty-eight Soldiers, Airmen, and Marines participated in a naturalization ceremony in Baghdad, Iraq, as the first servicemembers ever to be sworn in on Iraqi soil as U.S. citizens.6 Just three days prior, on 1 October 2004, a similar naturalization ceremony was held in Afghanistan, marking the first ever naturalization ceremony for U.S. servicemembers on foreign soil. Legislation passed on 24 November 2003 now allows a military applicant for U.S. citizenship to take the exam, the interview, and the oath at certain overseas locations.7 The law authorizes and encourages commanders to provide military leave and transportation to qualifying servicemembers for naturalization purposes.8 The legislation also reduced from three years to one the years of military service required for non-citizens servicemembers to be eligible for citizenship,9 and waived all citizenship application fees for servicemembers.10 Additionally, in perhaps the most significant action with regard to military naturalization to date, President George W. Bush signed an executive order granting an exception to the service requirement for any active duty servicemember serving during the Global War on Terrorism.11 The sheer size of the federal bureaucracy responsible’for immigration and naturalization issues is impressive and can prove daunting for Soldiers unfamiliar with navigating the naturalization waters. The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration and Service (USCIS), formerly known as the Immigration and Naturalization Service, now falls within the Department of Homeland Security and employs over 14,000 individuals in over 250 offices.12 Like any large government agency, the USCIS manages a tremendous workload. In FY 2004 alone, the USCIS received over 662,188 naturalization applications, approved approximately 536,174 applications, denied at least 103,203 applications, and had over 653,190 applications pending.13 Fortunately for personnel of all military services, the Department of Defense and USCIS have partnered to streamline the application process for Soldiers.14 In the Army, overall responsibility with regard to the Soldier naturalization process lies with the unit personnel section.15 Instead of creating centralized help desks as the other three military services chose to do, the Army designated personnel services offices in the battalion (BN) or Brigade Combat Team (BCT), Personnel Services Battalion (PSB), Personnel Service Center (PSC), Military Personnel Division (MPD), or Military Personnel Office (MILPO) to assist Soldiers in the citizenship application process and to coordinate directly with the Army Human Resources Command. These personnel offices provide assistance at virtually every stage of the process, to include issuing initial eligibility worksheets and citizenship application documents, scheduling fingerprint appointments, reviewing completed documents, verifying Soldier service data, coordinating background checks with the Army Central Clearance Facility, and mailing the citizenship application packet to USCIS. In addition, although individual Soldiers are not authorized to contact USCIS directly, the Army has authorized these designated personnel representatives to contact USCIS on behalf of Soldiers.16 It is imperative to reiterate that the designated unit personnel services offices have primary responsibility for assisting the Soldier in the citizenship application process. As a client service, however, many legal assistance offices will review, upon request, the servicemember’s application.17 Although each servicemember is ultimately responsible for ensuring that his naturalization application packet is complete and accurate, legal assistance personnel can play a vital role in verifying that application packets are complete and accurate upon first submission.18 To this end, when workload and resources permit, Client Services offices may want to conduct regular “citizen workshops” to assist large numbers of applicants at one time. This has proved to be extremely successful in Iraq. During these workshops, the attorney or paralegal should review each participant’s application forms in detail to ensure that the Soldier has completed everything correctly. By conducting a presubmission review with the Soldier and by noting common mistakes, the Client Services office emphasizes to the Soldier the importance of taking individual responsibility for his application and seeing the process through to completion. Client Services offices must emphasize that although judge advocate personnel provide advice and assistance, the onus remains with the Soldier to complete the packet properly. Diligence is important because a mistake in filling out the required application documents normally results in the USCIS sending a query letter to the Soldier’s home address indicated on the application, which is often a stateside address. IfUSCIS fails to receive a response, the mistake could cause the application to be shelved and to be potentially abandoned by the USCIS.19 To begin the application process, the Soldier needs the following documentation: immigrationandnaturalizationnow.net immigration and naturalization

1. Form N-400 Application, completed and signed.20 2. Two standard passport photos. ?· 3. Form N-426, certified by the appropriate military personnel.21 4. Form G-325B, Biographical Information.22 5. Two Sets of fingerprints on FD-258, signed by the appropriate personnel, sealed in an envelope, and signed along the seal.

6. A letter indicating all the enclosures and including more information.23 In order to complete the forms correctly without delay, the Soldier should obtain, at a minimum, his Alien Registration Number, which is on his permanent resident card,24 and know a five-year history of previous employment and residence data.25 Each male Soldier must have a selective service number and the date of his registration with the selective service.26 Lastly, the Soldier should obtain evidence of military service, such as the Form 4-1 or 4-2 enlistment contract, DD 214, mobilization orders, or a recent leave and earnings statement. The typical client services workshop will take approximately three hours, including fingerprinting, photographing, and verification of the Soldier’s service record. go to website immigration and naturalization

Completing the N-400 Application for Naturalization The instructions for completing the Application for Naturalization N-400 may be accessed on the internet.27 The USCIS requires exact compliance with the application process. Uniformity and completeness is essential for an expedited application process. All applicants must either write legibly on the application or type the form online. If the USCIS cannot read the application, it may treat it as incomplete, causing the application to be abandoned if not corrected.28 The applicant must answer each question-no question may be left blank.29 The Soldier must enter his USCIS Alien Number on the top right of each page of this form in the block provided. In question IA, the “Family Name” is the Soldier’s last name and the “Given Name” is the Soldier’s first name. If the Soldier does not have a middle name, then “n/a” or “none” should be indicated. The Soldier should enter his name exactly as it appears on his permanent resident card for IB. In 1C, the Soldier should only enter other names as listed on his birth certificate or a maiden name and not a nickname. Assuming that the Soldier does not desire a change of name, then “no” should be indicated in question ID; otherwise, the applicant must complete the process CONUS. If the Soldier wants to take advantage of the expedited application process and fee waiver offered to the military, the Soldier must mark question 2C as indicating the applicant is in the military.30 This military box, when checked, notifies USCIS not to charge an application fee to expedite the review process. If the applicant does not answer this question correctly, USCIS transfers the Soldier’s file to Vermont with no expedited review process and will include a request for the filing fee.

Any additional page should be styled “Addendum to [Name of the Form and Number]” and should then indicate the Soldier’s full name and USCIS Alien number and include “Question __; page __.” This page should follow the question to which it refers and should be stapled in order. If a question calls for a separate sheet, the Soldier must include a separate sheet. For question 7A, if the Soldier is in Iraq, ensure the deployment is listed but the Soldier need not include it as a trip or count the days. The total number of days listed in the table needs to be totaled along with all the number of trips and so entered. A deployment from Fort Bragg that refuels in Germany and stops in Kuwait for a day and then goes to Iraq is one trip, but if the stop in Kuwait is over twenty-four hours, the Soldier should indicate that on the chart.

If the Soldier enters “yes” to any question in Part 10A, a separate sheet of paper must be attached to provide an explanation for the affirmative answer. While question 10A(6) asks about any title of nobility, the United States does not recognize titles of nobility. Question 10B(10) does not include Iraq when it asks if the Soldier has ever advocated the overthrow of any government. In question 10D, as will all parts of the application, each subquestion about moral character must be answered truthfully. Failure to list a conviction, even a petty conviction, may result in denial of the application because the Soldier lacks moral character.32 In question 10F, the Soldier should answer “yes” to subquestion number 29 because he has served in the U.S. Armed Forces. If the Soldier is a male, he must enter his selective service number in subquestion number 33 and the date he registered. If unknown, the Soldier can locate his selective service number and date at www.sss.gov.33 If the answer to any question in H is “no,” the USCIS will probably deny this Soldier’s application.

Completing the N-426 Request for Certification of Military or Naval Service The Soldier should fill out the page with the USCIS Alien number blank on the left and the date of the request on the right in triplicate but not the other pages. The Soldier should provide the name used during active duty service. The service number is the social security number. All Soldiers in Iraq are in active service for the purposes of this form. The Soldier should fill out the same information three times. Once complete, a representative from the PSB or any other authorized military official will verify the Soldier’s service record. This individual will fill out the next page in triplicate, and certify it by looking at the Soldier’s Form 4-1 or 4-2 Enlistment contract, any DD 214s, any mobilization orders, or even an LES which verifies the date the Soldier entered service.34 The authorized military official should fill in all the blanks, especially the dates of service in question one, and if the Soldier served honorably in question five, and if the military discharged him due to alienage in question 11. Once verified, these three forms should be signed and stamped or sealed.

Completing the G-325B Biographic Information Form The “Family Name” is the Soldier’s last name. “All other names” means official names and not nicknames. The address information and employment information should match the information provided on the Application for Naturalization form.

Fingerprint Cards The Soldier should fill in the name, sign the card, list his residence, indicate the country of citizenship, fill in the sex, race, height, weight, eye color, hair, date of birth, place of birth, social security number, date the card, and fill in the employer and address. The person conducting the fingerprinting must also sign the card. The military is exempt from the fingerprint fee and the requirement that applicants be fingerprinted by USCIS. Thus, any certified individual may fingerprint the Soldier. At the Soldier’s Legal Center at LSA Anaconda in Iraq, the client services paralegals received fingerprint training and certification and obtained several fingerprint kits.35 On the form, for the “reason fingerprinted,” the appropriate response is “N-400″ and for the “miscellaneous number” the Soldier should use the alien number. The Soldier should complete two fingerprint cards and enclose them in a separate envelope. The person conducting the fingerprinting must sign across the seal of the envelope, tape over the signature, and enclose this envelope within the larger envelope containing the rest of the application.

Photographs The USCIS now accepts passport photographs; therefore, Soldiers can disregard all former rules regarding size of the person in the photograph. 6 While the USCIS may accept photographs printed on regular photographic paper by a color printer, the application will look more professional using a traditional passport photograph.

After the Soldier completes the application, and a legal assistance attorney or paralegal checks the packet, the Soldier or the servicing personnel office mails the packet to the Lincoln, Nebraska Service center. The Soldier should expect to wait up to six months before the USCIS contacts him. The USCIS does try to reduce the processing time for servicemembers to be no more than four months. The USCIS processes the applications of non-citizen servicemembers serving on active duty after 11 September 2001 on an “expedited” basis.37 Once the application has been received and accepted, USCIS will assign a Lincoln, Nebraska tracking number (LIN) to the file and will then begin a thorough background investigation.38 As the application is being processed, the Soldier should retrieve study material online and prepare to take the exam and interview. 9 At this point, the Soldier typically waits for another letter from USCIS informing him of the time for an interview. If the Soldier misses the interview and does not notify USCIS, the case will be closed by USCIS after one year.40 After the interview, the Soldier is then set for a time to take the exam. Finally, after a successful interview and exam, the USCIS will contact the Soldier to schedule a date to be sworn in before a federal judge.

After reviewing this note, judge advocates will be better able to assist Soldiers interested in going through the naturalization process and obtaining U.S. citizenship. Assistance by judge advocate personnel will increase the confidence of non-citizen Soldiers that their application packets are complete and accurate. Becoming a United States citizen is an extreme privilege for any person, but holds special significance to the brave non-citizen Soldiers who have volunteered to serve the nation during the Global War On Terrorism. Judge advocate personnel who participate in this effort perform a much-needed and professionally rewarding service to their fellow Soldiers.

[Author Affiliation] Major Marc Defreyn & First Lieutenant Darrell Baughn1 [Author Affiliation] 1 Major Defreyn is a judge advocate with the 81st BCT, Washington Army National Guard. Major Defreyn served as Chief of Client Services at LSA Anaconda, Iraq, during OIF II (March 2004 – February 2005). First lieutenant Baughn is a judge advocate with the 213th LSO Team 7, U.S. Army Reserve. First lieutenant Baughn is currently the Chief of Client Services at LSA Anaconda, Iraq (OIF HI, February 2005 – current).

Defreyn, Marc; Baughn, Darrell


  1. Killa-D-#1 -  March 16, 2012 - 10:46 am

    The Narrow gate is coming soon but how we to post know our self or hold one another should we do or should we search by the christian bible.

  2. John -  February 27, 2012 - 8:29 pm

    Awesome article! Too many Christians do not understand these facts. Languages evolve over time, and you, American, are not reading the original language! Plus, that bit about the word that is often rendered virgin, but of which the meaning is nuanced, is very interesting. Nuance is important; it can make or break doctrine.

    True, for us believers, the Holy Spirit inspired scripture (never mind that Paul was referring to the Old Testament writings), but God did not come down to translate the old and new testament writings into modern English, or even the not-so-modern English of the King James. It’s on us to seek understanding.

    One word, people: exegesis.

  3. Ruth -  January 24, 2012 - 1:11 pm

    I ran across a passage in a book that tackles this subject beautifully. The Invisible War by Donald Grey Barnhouse says it this way:

    “Just as the Holy Spirit came upon the womb of Mary, so He came upon the brain of a Moses, a David, an Isaiah, a Paul, a John, and the rest of the writers of the divine library. The power of the Highest overshadowed them, therefore the holy thing which was born of their minds is called the Holy Bible, the Word of God. The writings of Luke will, of course, have the vocabulary of Luke, and the works of Paul will bear the stamp of Paul’s mind. However, this is only in the same manner that the Lord Jesus Christ might have had eyes like His mother’s, or hair that was the same color and texture as hers. He did not inherit her sins, because the Holy Spirit had come upon her. If we ask how this could be, the answer is because God says so. And the writings of the men of the Book did not inherit the errors of their carnal minds, because the writings were conceived by the Holy Spirit and born out of their personalities without partaking of their fallen nature. If we ask how this could be, again the answer is that God says so.”

  4. Miki -  January 23, 2012 - 5:37 am

    To bailla: you are 100% correct. the Bible, refering to the Old Testament or Torah and more specific the Ten Commandments and the rest of the rules were given by God on Mt Sinai to the Hebrews and written by the hand of God. The handwritting of God it is certainly holy however any translation is the hand of man, and will include missinterpretations, translation ambiguity and simple mistakes. the translations carry on the holy ideas and concepts but can not be holy down to the single word, hence the book would be “just” a book,

  5. Moxie -  January 22, 2012 - 3:18 pm

    @Tachi I’m so glad you said that! I got lost trying to work out what the author was talking about, ie when they meant something was supposed to have happened. I kept expecting them to define what they meant by the common era, thinking it was something that pertained directly to the subject (Common to the Greeks? Common in Aramaic etc).
    It was a good article, spoilt by something as petty as political correctness, which is ironic considering it’s the Bible and Jesus who defined the whole BC/AD thing anyway.
    Moral of the story? You can’t arbitrarily change a custom that’s been in place worldwide overnight and expect everyone will agree or even know what you are talking about…

  6. bailla -  January 21, 2012 - 12:42 am

    The big question is : is the translation of bible as holy as the original versions ?

  7. Charlie -  January 20, 2012 - 4:14 pm

    This merely illustrates the obvious: The bible is a book comprised of myths, constructed and tweaked over the years by people like you and me, often for political purposes.

  8. Archon -  January 19, 2012 - 8:49 pm

    The prophecy which ardent Christians hold up as support for their unquestioning faith is, “A virgin shall give birth”. Nobody bothers to include the rest of it, which says, “And his name shall be Immanuel”. The name of Mary’s son was Yeshoah, not Jesus, not Christ, and certainly not Immanuel.
    The prophecy was given to a city-king as assurance that he and his army would be victorious in an upcoming battle. Instead he lost the battle, his city and his life. So much for believable accuracy. If some of it is supposed to be true, then all of it should be true, but go ahead and just pick the parts you like and tell me how the Bible is inerrant.

  9. KevinN -  January 19, 2012 - 9:34 am

    In response to Mori on January 18, 2012 at 4:56 am
    There is medical research to document numerous virgin-births caused by parthenogenesis — but in every case, because the ovum is not ferilized by male sperm, the child is female. The miracle of the virgin-birth is that the child was male.

    FACT: This comment is quite misleading. Parthenogenesis has not been ever known to happen in mammals.

  10. Enoch Kelly -  January 19, 2012 - 2:13 am


    If my view is considered sexist then so be it. For one i did not care much about daVinci’s or michelangelo’s works, simply because daV’s Monalisa reminded me of a man and Mich’s David and Bathsheba’ sculpture reminded me a lesbian couple!!! As for Van Gogh, it was simple chaos! Perhaps it is to the eye of a beholder that we would so easily attribute this particular statement of mine, like most of my religious questions were shunned away without an answer by simple quoting the bible “Blessed are those who have not seen and yet have believed”

    Not that i wish to discuss sexism or religious views and beliefs here, but what i had stated earlier was only an observation. This observation is founded on the fact of my own belief – God is too big and too great a force that it cannot be confined to a name gender or religion.

    Again not wishing to offend any of you who have your own beliefs or views. All i wish to state after this above mentioned is that, the author of this post has done an amazing job talking about the translations. It was a beautifully written piece.

  11. Sam McFisher -  January 19, 2012 - 12:14 am

    Coptic Orthodox Church, has its own pope the Pope of Alexandria and whole Africa, now Pope Sheoda III, they have prayers in ancient coptic language ( the language after the hyroglyphs ) and also coptic christians study thid old coptic language til now.

    Also the ROMAN CATHOLIC, study latin,another thing to mention is that a lot of their nuns don’t even know about coptic orthodox, or the Pope Shenoda III … which is weird because nuns travel from church to church and from monastry to monastry…

    Also GOD with his messangers and his holy books had been facing many opposition from evil men to manipulate his own words either from translation or from new bibles and fake priests, so that’s why GOD sent his last messanger with his SOLE miracle the Qur’an with ONE language ‘Arabic’ that cannot be manupilated and to understand the Qur’an a person must be fluent in Plain Arabic to interpret the meanings of the verses and another thing to mention is that meanings of the Qur’an could differ and develop more through time, as its miracle lies in the book itself that is applicable for any human being at any given time and it has ONE language ARABIC ..

    P.S.: Arabic like Hebrew is rooted from Aramaic, but Hebrew is only limited to the Hebrews or the Jews while Arabic was the common international language with all the sciences and literature books available in arabic and used to be translated to latin or any other language like Ibn Rushd or Averros http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Averroes a scientist and philosipher of the Arabic Era use to translate these valuable books and vice versa other latin books into Arabic

    Thank You


  12. Jeremy -  January 18, 2012 - 12:51 pm

    In response to Anand and the article where the word virgin is concerned:
    in the particular case of Mary, scripture is clear that she was a virgin at the time of Jesus’ birth. Luke 1:34, in response to the angel telling her that she would have a son, she replied “how can this be seeing that I know not a man?” A clear indication that she was still a virgin.

  13. Alicia -  January 18, 2012 - 11:01 am

    Well, for the virgin vs. maiden part. Even in Old English the word “maiden” automatically donated a (usually young) virgin girl. Look up the word maiden and then think back to those times, if you weren’t married then you were a virgin that’s why they never called married women maidens and a girls virginity was referred to as maidenhood. (look up “maidenhood”) so, Jesus WAS born of a girl who was in maidenhood, a virgin girl.

    Also, in many Churches (including my own) they teach the Bible and they’ll take a word or phrase and tell us the originall Greek or Hebrew definition so that we can better understand that verse. So, even though we don’t speak Greek or Hebrew we are still taught about it but then again I have great pastors and I know not all pastors/preachers/priests teach the Bible the same as each other.

    But, we should be eager to study His word and aim to understand it.
    God Bless<3

  14. DD -  January 18, 2012 - 10:51 am

    The Word of God is the Word of God. Many of us forget the “Tower of Babel” which no translation disputes. Men at one time spoke one language based on that era of biblical time frame.

    God Himself separated them into different languages. I know for certain, that God would not separate mankind into separate languages without giving them a way to understand Him. The bible scriptures is God. (In the beginning was the “Word” the “Word” was with God and was God himself.) What most fail to understand is the Word of God is just that whether it’s Hebrew, Greek, English, Latin etc.

    One it’s not to be argued in any context (Jesus returned and asked the disciples what are you arguing about before he healed the boy with seizures. Who were they arguing with? Scholars of the scriptures who new the definitions or law of the text but not the Spirit of the Word.

    Our Jewish brothers were assigned by God to bring the truth and recognition of God to mankind. We argue language and translations. Truthfully as long as the interpretation lines up with what God intended for us to learn that He is Sovereign. My belief is Jesus is Lord.

    Ask yourselves this: What language did Adam, Eve, their children (Cain/Abel) speak? This was before any dialect of language was establish. This means that the Word of God is today as it was then. The Divine revelation of God. Period…

    God Bless,


  15. MikeD -  January 18, 2012 - 10:50 am

    Any good preacher/teacher will explain the original Greek/Aramaic when reading a particular passage, and at minimum will read parts from 2-3 other translations. By doing this, in church or on your own (I read from at least 3), you can get close to knowing the original. Various Bible websites are also great at flipping between versions and even languages. (biblegateway.com, blueletterbible.com)
    I like the NIV for readability, but it’s not literal. King James is literal, but hard to read. My church teaches from the NASB, which is somewhere in between, but a little to “street English” for my tastes.

    Some have mentioned issues with quoting from a particular translation. IMHO it’s more important to read a quote “in context”. Too often, we just throw a passage out there. But not knowing the context, as well as the original meaning, can lead to completely misguided theology.

  16. Ptron -  January 18, 2012 - 10:44 am

    Enoch Kelly,

    You reveal too much of your sexist bias. da Vinci, Michelangelo, Van Gogh, Renoir, etc. Did these men not create beautiful things? As for calling God “He,” it is the pronoun (along with “Father,” which Jesus used) used in the Scriptures, so it is the pronoun we continue to use. If that offends you, then you are allowing trivial matters to blind yourself regarding the importance and transcendence of Adonai’s message of love and redemption to His creation–us.


    Perhaps you have a point regarding the sanctification of the name of God, YHVH, but the truth is that many Christians do know the name of God. Even if many Christians don’t know the Tetragrammaton, we still exalt and honor our God by addressing Him by such names/titles as “LORD/Lord,” “King,” God, “Father,” “Almighty,” etc. The true reverence is found in the heart of the worshiper, and the fruit the worshiper bears is evidence of the worshiper’s heart. If the worshiper neglects to call God “YHVH” (or “Yahweh”) out of ignorance but addresses God sincerely as, for example, “Father” and “Lord,” then the worshiper’s respect of his/her God is clear. If the supposed worshiper purposely omits “YHVH” but calls him/herself a follower of God, then the conviction in that person’s heart is questionable.

    So I concede that we believers and followers of the Lord God Jesus Christ could do well to reserve even greater reverence for THE name of God, but many believers and followers may still hold the same reverence for the Spirit of God despite our lack of use of “YHVH.”

  17. Suleman -  January 18, 2012 - 9:47 am

    Even common language has translation problems, forget about Bible, Torah, or Koran! They’re meant to be living books and any book without the interpreter appointed by the author has no meaning! Where and who is the author’s interpreter? it can’t be several, has to be One only!

  18. Dee -  January 18, 2012 - 8:35 am

    My comment is (excuse me for not sounding brilliant as most of the posters do) that you should interperet/translate the bible and the words to say exactly what it said when it was written! We aren’t so ignorant that we wouldn’t be able to understand it’s meaning. Don’t try to make a word out of something in fear of me not understanding. Let me be the judge of what was written and what it means to me. A virgin and a young woman are two very different things. Can anyone say False Prophets?
    I’ve had this question every since I’ve know about the bible and how it was translated into Greek, English, Latin etc….Were the motives of the first translaters honest? If there were political implications, (especially w/Romans) then there were motives….So are we truly reading “The Word”?
    Remember our history books, that are still being used in classrooms today, are not entirely accurate. A lot of information is left out.

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