March 17th is St. Patrick’s Day, or Lá Fhéile Pádraig (Irish), named for one of the most recognized of the patron saints of Ireland, Saint Patrick, who died on this date around 493 A.D. While St. Patrick is famous for allegedly driving snakes out of Ireland, he is also responsible for the oldest known Gaelic composition in existence. This fact provides to explore the question of why Gaelic uses familiar letters in such unfamiliar ways.
Gaelic, pronounced: /ˈɡeɪlɪk/, is an adjective that means “pertaining to the Gaels” – the speakers of the Celtic language originating in Ireland around the fourth century. Written Irish, or An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, from this period is known as Primitive Irish. The fifth century saw the language transition into Old Irish – which, with the placement of marginalia (marginal notes) from manuscripts, is known to have utilized the Latin alphabet. A hymn entitled “The Cry of the Deer” written by Saint Patrick may be the only written proof of Gaelic from this time. By the 12th century, Middle Irish evolved into the Early Modern Irish which was used through the 18th century.
There is no standard pronunciation of the Irish language, and the phonology varies amongst the Irish Gaelic and its sister languages the Scottish and Manx Gaelic dialects. Even within the language there are three main dialects – Munster (the south of Ireland), Connacht (Connemara and Aran Island in the west of Ireland) and Ulster (the north of Ireland). Each dialect may vary in their word and phrase selection, pronunciation and even grammar. There is, however, a mutual intelligibility amongst speakers of different Gaelic dialects.
In the case of Irish Gaelic, familiar consonants come in pairs, except for /h/: One is’ broad’ – pronounced with the tongue placed on the back of the soft palate; the other is ‘slender’ – pronounced with the middle of the tongue pushed up towards the hard palate. The use of consonant mutations changes a word according to its morphological and syntactic environment. It helps to identify the relationship between two similar words and their various meanings, but also results in written combinations that can be unusual to the non-Gaelic speaker.
As a result of the Great Famine (known outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine) in the mid-nineteenth century, the Irish Gaelic language lost a great number of its speakers to death and emigration due to poverty. The Gaelic Revival movement, which began at the end of the nineteenth century, encouraged the learning and use of the Irish language throughout Ireland. Today there are just over 72,000 people who use Irish Gaelic as a first language throughout different parts of the country.
INTERNET VEHICLE REGISTRATION RENEWAL PLANNED OUTAGE ON MARCH 3-4
US Fed News Service, Including US State News February 28, 2006 Gwinnett County issued the following press release: go to website gwinnett county tax commissioner
Gwinnett County Tax Commissioner Katherine Sherrington confirmed today that the Georgia Department of Revenue (DOR) will be performing a computer system transition on both Friday and Saturday, March 3 and 4, 2006. The state’s Internet online registration renewals will be unavailable those two days. The online renewal system should be available Sunday morning, March 5, 2006.
Sherrington said that Gwinnett County residents may still renew vehicle registrations by visiting a Tag Office, using the U.S. mail, or calling her office at (770) 822-8818 and following the prompts to renew registrations by telephone. gwinnettcountytaxcommissioner.org gwinnett county tax commissioner
DOR has also announced other state websites that will not be available during the transition period. These include sites for public insurance verification, the insurance compliance system used by insurance companies, and the site for motor vehicle information.
Dermatology Times April 1, 1999 | Anonymous What’s on your patients’ minds? Likely, it’s what’s in the news about dermatology.
NEEDLE PHOBIA Needless fear Child reports on two solutions for kids who hate needles.
EMLA anesthetic disk, a new form of the anesthetic cream EMLA, is available by prescription.
It can help reduce the pain of injections for kids age 1 month and up. After finding out from the doctor where the shot will be given, you place the adhesive disk (like a large Band-Aid) on your child’s skin at home, about an hour before the appointment, to numb the area.
The second needle-free solution is Dermabond, a tissue adhesive that has received FDA approval for use in children.
An alternative to stitches, Dermabond doses superficial wounds, takes just seconds for a doctor to apply (with no need for a numbing injection), is as safe and effective as stitches. It peels off on its own in seven to 10 days. Child March 1999 COLORFUL NEWS Root of the problem Coloring your hair won’t cause Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Earlier studies had suggested many hair-color products contain chemicals that may be carcinogenic.
In the largest study on the subject to date, researchers reported in the American Journal of Public Health that they had found no association between the use of hair dye and an increased risk for this type of cancer.
Researchers, however, did note a slightly elevated risk of cancer in men who had used semipermanent hair dye. Family Circle March 9, 1999 REAL REMEDIES Vain remedy An article in Health tells readers how to find reliable herbs for various conditions. Condition: Varicose veins Product to try: Venastat (800/2032916) Herbal ingredient: Horse chestnut seed How to use: Daily use. Occasionally causes itching. If nausea, upset stomach, or rapid heartbeat occurs, see your doctor. see here how to get rid of pimples overnight
Health March 1999 Feet treat A reader of Prevention offers this home remedy to prevent blisters on the feet to fellow readers: “On weekends, when my wife and I go on long hikes, we apply antiperspirant to our feet to prevent blisters. Amazingly, it works!” Using antiperspirant on your feet is such a novel idea that U.S. Army medical researchers tested its effectiveness on 667 cadets who endured a 13-mile hike. The results? Of those who used the antiperspirant at least three times before hiking, only 21 percent developed foot blisters.
Antiperspirant reduces the sweating that creates friction, which leads to blisters, says lead researcher Joseph Knapik, Sc.D., of the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.
Dr. Knapik suggests applying antiperspirant to your feet (wash and dry feet first) every day for five days before a major walk, run or hike.
Whether you use spray, stick, or rollon, make sure you cover your entire foot. One missed spot could lead to sweating and blisters. Reapply once or twice a week indefinitely, to maintain the antiperspirant effect.
(Note: The special antiperspirant solution tested in the study was highly concentrated. As a result, 57 percent of users developed skin irritation such as burning sensations and rashes. However, Dr. Kapnik suspects that commercial antiperspirants would work just fine without causing annoying side effects. If you do experience a reaction, try using it every other day, use sparingly or switch brands. If the irritation doesn’t stop, discontinue use.) Prevention March 1999 EPITHELIAL INSIGHT Getting the skin-ny Men’s Health offers some remedies for various skin conditions.
Here is a selection of them: What’s on your skin: Painful blisters and sores, usually running along one side of your chest, stomach, or head.
Cause: The chicken-pox virus. It lies dormant in nerve cells, near your spinal cord after a bout with the disease and can reactivate later. About 20 percent of people who’ve had chicken-pox someday contact shingles.
How to get rid of it: Your doctor can prescribe an antiviral medication that will limit the duration and severity of the outbreak. But the medication helps only if begun in the first three days, so act quickly. Open blisters and sores should be sponged lightly with mild soap and water once or twice a day.
What’s on your skin: An itchy or bleeding lesion that has an irregular border, is asymmetrical, has changed color or size, is elevated, or is larger than a pencil eraser.
Diagnosis: Could be skin cancer. Cause: Sun exposure and genetics are major factors.
How to get rid of it: See a dermatologist immediately. Even if it’s benign, ask your doctor about having it removed.
Men’s Health March 1999 Flight cream Formulated for the extra-dry climate of airplane cabins, Flight Cream ($28), available at prescription counters, makes a great under-foundation moisturizer when flying.
It hydrates instantly and is rich enough to continue working for hours. Applied thickly, it also makes a fiveminute mask your first night at your destination – or whenever your skin is extremely dry.
Prevention March 1999 HAIR HELP Baldness: a disease?
The FDA says baldness, among other conditions, should be classified as a “disease” along with any bodily function or structure other than those of a perfectly “healthy” individual.
This redefinition of disease would further limit a consumer’s access to information on the benefits of dietary supplements. Now, manufacturers cannot claim their products can cure, prevent or treat any disease or class of diseases, so this redefinition severely would restrict the health claims they could make. If the new rules pass, supplement labels could carry only vague statements such as “reduces stress” or “promotes relaxation.” The FDA currently is reviewing comments and have not yet announced any plans to proceed with a final ruling.
Natural Health March 1999 HAIRY MOLES Safe mole hair removal?
The thought of yanking, shaving, or electrolyzing the offending strand may make you wince, but it’s not dangerous, says Ronald Moy, associate clinical professor of dermatology, University of California (Los Angeles).
Mole hairs do tend to be longer and thicker than other hairs and may smart more when tweezed. Yet a mole is no more likely to hurt or bleed than any other skin from which hair is removed. Nor will extracting a hair cause a mole to change appearance or become cancerous.
In fact, says Moy, very rarely do hairy moles turn into melanoma.
Health March 1999 FACE OFF Face foes Daily exposure to sun, pollution, even our own hormones, can do a number on skin (over time, if not right away).
New help: Clinique’s Stop Signs AntiAging Serum, designed to provide serious protection and prevent wrinkles with an antioxidant blend called Su.Vi.Max.
Another hazard is stress. You can’t eliminate it, but you can be kind to overtaxed skin. Lanc*me’s Hydra Zen contain Acticalm, an ingredient complex (including rose petal extract, iris extract and amino acids) made to sooth upset, aggravated skin.
Mademoiselle March 1999 Patches, strips save skin In a recent issue of Health, New York dermatologist Diane Madfes looks at patches and strips that promise to fight everything from acne to wrinkles.
First she has this advice: Don’t double up by using a patch and a lotion that offer the same benefit. But you can mix products that do different things (say, an exfoliating cream by day and a vitamininfused strip at night). Leave patches on no longer than recommended, especially if your skin is sensitive (for example, from using Retin-A). If you’re allergic to adhesives, skip patches altogether.
Pore strippers: They really do exfoliate dead skin and gunk near the surface of pores. Just don’t count on them to root out deep plugs.
The newest versions by Biore, Pond’s, and Jergens come in three shapes to fit the forehead, cheeks, or chin. Almay and Clear Logix spike theirs with salicylic acid, a proven clog preventer. Elizabeth Arden adds vitamin C; Neutrogena’s Deep Clean contains ingredients to reduce shine.
Zit zappers: These deliver anti-acne ingredients (mainly salicylic acid) for as long as you wear them; lotions can rub off.
But patches, like lotions, cannot do much for full-blown pimples except soothe redness; their real benefit is bringing fledgling zits to the surface so they clear up faster. Check out Biosomme’s Acne Healing Patch and Infusia’s Blemish Kit.
Collagen fillers: Despite what some labels claim, collagen applied to skin cannot penetrate deeply enough to plump wrinkles. However, the patches can hydrate your skin, which temporarily reduces the appearance of lines.
Versions with glycolic acid (like Biosomme’s Anti-Wrinkle Collagen Patch) also exfoliate dead cells, further refining skin texture. But pass on these if collagen injections are in your future: patches could increase your sensitivity to the substance.
Skin smoothers: Dosed with fruit or lactic acids, exfoliating aids like the Sudden Change Hydroxy Patch slough dead cells at least as well as comparablestrength alphahydroxy acid lotions. If you have tender skin, you can leave them on just 30 to 45 minutes; otherwise try them overnight. They come in shapes to target furrows around the mouth or forehead.
Vitamin boosters: Research suggests vitamin C may diminish fine wrinkles and stimulate collagen production, but oxygen breaks it down quickly. Patches such as those by Le Pont Beauty Enhancer and University Medical deliver the antioxidant directly into skin while you sleep; this method seals out air and facilitates better penetration than lotions with vitamin C. website how to get rid of pimples overnight
Spot lighteners: The patches in the Infusia Skin Tone Kit contains kojic acid and hydroquinone to fade age spots and other dark pigmentations, according to the report.
Although these ingredients are half as potent as what you’d get in a prescription for spot-lightening lotion, the twicea-week patch may allow for better absorption and thus similar results.
Health March 1999 Cleansinq cure-alls Allure offers readers a guide to cleansing. Step 1: Remove makeup. Apply a small amount of eye-makeup remover to a cotton pad. Gently wipe the pad across the lid and along the lashes. Go over the area again with a clean pad until the lids are makeup-free.
Step 2: Lather cleanser. After washing hands, take soap or a dime-size amount of liquid cleanser and create a lather between palms. Most dermatologists recommend using clean hands instead of a washcloth. Unless a fresh cloth is used each time, hair follicles on the face can become infected by bacteria on the cloth.
Step 3: Wash skin. Using circular motions, gently massage cleanser into skin. “You don’t need to pull down on the skin or rub too hard,” cautions New York dermatologist Debra Jaliman. Cleansers generally contain sodium lauryl sulfate and cetyl alcohol, ingredients that remove dirt and oil without excessive friction.
Step 4: Rinse the soap suds. To remove cleanser, rinse with lukewarm water, splashing several times. Extremely hot water might feel good but it can irritate skin. And forget about that “pre-closing” cold splash. “Pores are not like shutters that open and close,” says Chicago dermatologist Marianne O’Donoghue.
Step 5: Blot gently. With a clean, soft towel, gently blot the face until slightly damp. (Dermatologists warn that rubbing the face can leave skin looking red and blotchy.) If the towel you are using ends up covered with makeup smudges, return to Step 1 (and grab a new towel).
Step 6: Moisturize. While skin is still damp, take a pea-size amount of moisturizer and rub it gently on the face. “Using lotion on slightly damp skin helps to seal in the moisture,” says New York dermatologist Rena Brand. It also helps conserve moisturizer – a tiny bit goes a long way on damp skin.
The article also warns not to make these mistakes:
* Washing too often.
* Sleeping with makeup on.
* Using too many products.
* Not taking your skin type into consideration.
* Overscrubbing. Allure March 1999 Peel improvements Amino fruit-acid peels are the next generation of power exfoliators, moving away from straight glycolic or alpha-hydroxy acid peels, says Dr. David Bank, director of the Center for Dermatology, Mount Kisco, N.Y.
These acid peels differ from glycolics in that they are less irritating because they are chemically buffered by amino molecules. They are also more effective due to the addition of vitamin C.
The peels improve skin tone, normalize skin cells and boost collagen production, says Dr. Bank, one of the only physicians currently doing this type of peel. Most people have a series of six treatments (one a week), building up concentration and contact time.
At-home peels are also an option, says Manhattan dermatologist Dr. Dennis Gross, who has developed a do-it-yourself version of his in-office alpha-beta peel (which combines alpha- and betahydroxy acids).
Done daily (by wiping the face with two presoaked pads), the peel helps improve superficial sun damage, reduce the appearance of fine lines and relieve acne, he says. “This is not radical exfoliation,” says Dr. Gross of why the peel is so safe and nonirritating. For more details, call 888-830-SKIN.
The article also talks about laser skin resurfacing.
Dr. Bank and other dermatologists are now using an erbium laser, which resurfaces with less heat so there is less redness (lasting seven days).
The erbium laser is also much more controllable, says Bank, who uses it on acne scars as well as on older, sun-damaged skin.
Harper’s Bazaar March 1999 Petroleum jelly power How do readers of Family Circle use Vaseline for great skin care? Here are some of their ideas:
Tip: Buy liquid vitamin C, chamomile or grape seeds at a health food store. Pat on face and neck at night, then follow with a little petroleum jelly to seal in.
Tip: Massage into hangnails and dry, cracked cuticles, then put on cotton gloves before bed. You’ll wake up with soft hands.
Tip: Smooth generously on feet, especially dry spots, then hit the sack with socks on for smooth morning results. Family Circle March 9, 1999 Anonymous
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